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    正在播放:比爾蓋茨哈佛大學畢業演講:永遠別向復雜低頭 關鍵詞:比爾蓋茨演講;哈佛大學畢業演講;2012畢業演講;新聞眼;最熱點播;


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    簡介: 2012年7月,又到了一年畢業的時光,有溫情,有傷感。年輕,肆無忌憚的綻放,卻錯過含蓄的婉轉;青春,只有一次的激揚,卻充滿憧憬和徘徊。是誰,在敲打我窗;是誰,在輕彈吉它;記憶中的場景,悄悄的浮現在我的腦海...



    President Bok, former President Rudenstine, incoming President Faust, members of the Harvard Corporation and the Board of Overseers, members of the faculty, arents, and especially, the graduates:


    I've been waiting more than 30 years to say this: "Dad, I always told you I'd come back and get my degree."


    I want to thank Harvard for this timely honor. I'll be changing my job next year … and it will be nice to finally have a college degree on my resume.


    I applaud the graduates today for taking a much more direct route to your degrees. For my part, I'm just happy that the Crimson has called me"Harvard's most uccessful dropout." I guess that makes me valedictorian of my own special class … I did the best of everyone who failed.


    But I also want to be recognized as the guy who got Steve Ballmer to drop out of business school. I'm a bad influence. That's why I was invited to speak at your graduation. If I had spoken at your orientation, fewer of you might be here today.

    但是,我還要提醒大家,我使得Steve Ballmer(注:微軟總經理)也從哈佛商學院退學了。因此,我是個有著惡劣影響力的人。這就是為什么我被邀請來在你們的畢業典禮上演講。如果我在你們入學歡迎儀式上演講,那么能夠堅持到今天在這里畢業的人也許會少得多吧。

    Harvard was just a phenomenal experience for me. Academic life was fascinating. I used to sit in on lots of classes I hadn't even signed up for. And dorm life was terrific. I lived up at Radcliffe, in Currier House. There were always lots of people in my dorm room late at night discussing things, because everyone knew I didn't worry about getting up in the morning. That's how I came to be the leader of the anti-social group. We clung to each other as a way of validating our rejection of all those

    social people.

    對我來說,哈佛的求學經歷是一段非凡的經歷。校園生活很有 趣,我常去旁聽我沒選修的課。哈佛的課外生活也很棒,我在Radcliffe過著逍遙自在 的日子。每天我的寢室里總有很多人一直待到半夜,討論著各種事情。因為每個人都知道我從不考慮第二天早起。這使得我變成了校園里那些不安分學生的頭頭,我 們互相粘在一起,做出一種拒絕所有正常學生的姿態。

    Radcliffe was a great place to live. There were more women up there, and most of the guys were science-math types. That combination offered me the best odds, if you know what I mean. This is where I learned the sad lesson that improving your odds doesn't guarantee success.


    One of my biggest memories of Harvard came in January 1975, when I made a call from Currier House to a company in Albuquerque that had begun making the world's first personal computers. I offered to sell them software.


    I worried that they would realize I was just a student in a dorm and hang up on me. Instead they said: "We're not quite ready, come see us in a month," which was a good thing, because we hadn't written the software yet. From that moment, I worked day and night on this little extra credit project that marked the end of my college education and the beginning of a remarkable journey with Microsoft.

    我很擔心,他們會發覺我是一個住 在宿舍的學生,從而掛斷電話。但是他們卻說:"我們還沒準備好,一個月后你再來找我們吧。"這是個好消息,因為那時 軟件還根本沒有寫出來呢。就是從那個時候起,我日以繼夜地在這個小小的課外項目上工作,這導致了我學生生活的結束,以及通往微軟公司的不平凡的旅程的開 始。

    What I remember above all about Harvard was being in the midst of so much energy and intelligence. It could be exhilarating, intimidating, sometimes even discouraging, but always challenging. It was an amazing privilege – and though I left early, I was transformed by my years at Harvard, the friendships I made, and the ideas I worked on.

    不管怎樣,我對哈佛的回憶主要都與充沛的精力和智力活動有關。哈佛的生活令人愉快,也令人感到有壓力,有時甚至會感到泄氣,但永遠 充滿了挑戰性。生 活在哈佛是一種吸引人的特殊期待……雖然我離開得比較早,但是我在這里的經歷、在這里結識的朋友、在這里發展起來的一些想法,永遠地改變了我。

    But taking a serious look back … I do have one big regret.


    I left Harvard with no real awareness of the awful inequities in the world-- the appalling disparities of health, and wealth, and opportunity that condemn millions of people to lives of despair.


    I learned a lot here at Harvard about new ideas in economics and politics. I got great exposure to the advances being made in the sciences.


    But humanity's greatest advances are not in its discoveries – but in how those discoveries are applied to reduce inequity. Whether through democracy, strong public education, quality health care, or broad economic opportunity – reducing inequity is the highest human achievement.


    I left campus knowing little about the millions of young people cheated out of educational opportunities here in this country. And I knew nothing about the millions of people living in unspeakable poverty and disease in developing countries.


    It took me decades to find out.


    You graduates came to Harvard at a different time. You know more about the

    world's inequities than the classes that came before. In your years here, I

    hope you've had a chance to think about how – in this age of accelerating

    technology – we can finally take on these inequities, and we can solve






    Imagine, just for the sake of discussion, that you had a few hours a week and a few dollars a month to donate to a cause – and you wanted to spend that time and money where it would have the greatest impact in saving and improving lives. Where would you spend it?


    For Melinda and for me, the challenge is the same: how can we do the most good for the greatest number with the resources we have.


    During our discussions on this question, Melinda and I read an article about the millions of children who were dying every year in poor countries from diseases that we had long ago made harmless in this country. Measles, malaria, pneumonia, hepatitis B, yellow fever. One disease I had never even heard of, rotavirus, was killing half a million kids each year – none of them in the United States.

    在討論過程中,Melinda和我讀到 了一篇文章,里面說在那些貧窮的國家,每年有數百萬的兒童死于那些在美國早已不成問題的疾病。麻疹、瘧疾、肺 炎、乙型肝炎、黃熱病、還有一種以前我從未聽說過的輪狀病毒,這些疾病每年導致50萬兒童死亡,但是在美國一例死亡病例也沒有。

    We were shocked. We had just assumed that if millions of children were dying and they could be saved, the world would make it a priority to discover and deliver the medicines to save them. But it did not. For under a dollar, there were interventions that could save lives that just weren't being delivered.


    If you believe that every life has equal value, it's revolting to learn that some lives are seen as worth saving and others are not. We said to ourselves: "This can't be true. But if it is true, it deserves to be the priority of our giving."


    So we began our work in the same way anyone here would begin it. We asked: "How could the world let these children die?"


    The answer is simple, and harsh. The market did not reward saving the lives of these children, and governments did not subsidize it. So the children died because their mothers and their fathers had no power in the market and no voice in the system.


    But you and I have both.


    We can make market forces work better for the poor if we can develop a more creative capitalism – if we can stretch the reach of market forces so that more people can make a profit, or at least make a living, serving people who are suffering from the worst inequities. We also can press governments around the world to spend taxpayer money in ways that better reflect the values of the people who pay the taxes.

    我們可以讓市 場更好地為窮人服務,如果我們能夠設計出一種更有創新性的資本主義制度——如果我們可以改變市場,讓更多的人可以獲得利潤,或者至少可 以維持生活——那么,這就可以幫到那些正在極端不平等的狀況中受苦的人們。我們還可以向全世界的政府施壓,要求他們將納稅人的錢,花到更符合納稅人價值觀 的地方。

    If we can find approaches that meet the needs of the poor in ways that generate profits for business and votes for politicians, we will have found a sustainable way to reduce inequity in the world. This task is open-ended. It can never be finished. But a conscious effort to answer this challenge will change the world.


    I am optimistic that we can do this, but I talk to skeptics who claim there is no hope. They say: "Inequity has been with us since the beginning, and will be with us till the end – because people just … don't … care." I completely disagree.


    I believe we have more caring than we know what to do with.


    All of us here in this Yard, at one time or another, have seen human tragedies that broke our hearts, and yet we did nothing – not because we didn't care, but because we didn't know what to do. If we had known how to help, we would have acted.


    The barrier to change is not too little caring; it is too much complexity.


    To turn caring into action, we need to see a problem, see a solution, and see the impact. But complexity blocks all three steps.


    Even with the advent of the Internet and 24-hour news, it is still a complex enterprise to get people to truly see the problems. When an airplane crashes, officials immediately call a press conference. They promise to investigate, determine the cause, and prevent similar crashes in the future.


    But if the officials were brutally honest, they would say: "Of all the people in the world who died today from preventable causes, one half of one percent of them were on this plane. We're determined to do everything possible to solve the problem that took the lives of the one half of one percent."


    The bigger problem is not the plane crash, but the millions of preventable deaths.


    We don't read much about these deaths. The media covers what's new – and millions of people dying is nothing new. So it stays in the background, where it's easier to ignore. But even when we do see it or read about it, it's difficult to keep our eyes on the problem. It's hard to look at suffering if the situation is so complex that we don't know how to help. And so we look away.

    我們并沒有很多機會了解那些死亡事件。媒體總是報告新聞,幾百萬人將要死去并非新聞。如果沒有人報道,那么這些事件就很容易被忽視。另一方面,即使 我們確實目睹了事件本身或者看到了相關報道,我們也很難持續關注這些事件。看著他人受苦是令人痛苦的,何況問題又如此復雜,我們根本不知道如何去幫助他 人。所以我們會將臉轉過去。

    If we can really see a problem, which is the first step, we come to the second step: cutting through the complexity to find a solution.


    Finding solutions is essential if we want to make the most of our caring. If we have clear and proven answers anytime an organization or individual asks "How can I help?," then we can get action – and we can make sure that none of the caring in the world is wasted. But complexity makes it hard to mark a path of action for everyone who cares — and that makes it hard for their caring to matter.

    如果我們要讓關心落到實處,我們就必須找到解決辦法。如果我們 有一個清晰的和可靠的答案,那么當任何組織和個人發出疑問"如何我能提供幫助"的時候,我們就能采取行動。我們就能夠保證不浪費一丁點全世界人類對他人的關心。但是,世界的復雜性使得很難找到對全世界每一個有愛心的人都有效的行動方法, 因此人類對他人的關心往往很難產生實際效果。

    Cutting through complexity to find a solution runs through four predictable stages: determine a goal, find the highest-leverage approach, discover the ideal technology for that approach, and in the meantime, make the smartest application of the technology that you already have — whether it's something sophisticated, like a drug, or something simpler, like a bednet.


    The AIDS epidemic offers an example. The broad goal, of course, is to end the disease. The highest-leverage approach is prevention. The ideal technology would be a vaccine that gives lifetime immunity with a single dose. So governments, drug companies, and foundations fund vaccine research. But their work is likely to take more than a decade, so in the meantime, we have to work with what we have in hand – and the best prevention approach we have now is getting people to avoid risky behavior.

    艾滋病就是一個例子。總的目標,毫無疑問是消滅這種疾病。最高效的方法是預防。最理想的技術是發明一種疫苗,只要注射 一次,就可以終生免疫。所以, 政府、制藥公司、基金會應該資助疫苗研究。但是,這樣研究工作很可能十年之內都無法完成。因此,與此同時,我們必須使用現有的技術,目前最有效的預防方法 就是設法讓人們避免那些危險的行為。

    Pursuing that goal starts the four-step cycle again. This is the pattern. The crucial thing is to never stop thinking and working – and never do what we did with malaria and tuberculosis in the 20th century – which is to surrender to complexity and quit.


    The final step – after seeing the problem and finding an approach – is to measure the impact of your work and share your successes and failures so that others learn from your efforts.


    You have to have the statistics, of course. You have to be able to show that a program is vaccinating millions more children. You have to be able to show a decline in the number of children dying from these diseases. This is essential not just to improve the program, but also to help draw more investment from business and government.


    But if you want to inspire people to participate, you have to show more than numbers; you have to convey the human impact of the work – so people can feel what saving a life means to the families affected.


    I remember going to Davos some years back and sitting on a global health panel that was discussing ways to save millions of lives. Millions! Think of the thrill of saving just one person's life – then multiply that by millions. … Yet this was the most boring panel I've ever been on – ever. So boring even I couldn't bear it.


    What made that experience especially striking was that I had just come from an event where we were introducing version 13 of some piece of software,and we had people jumping and shouting with excitement. I love getting people excited about software – but why can't we generate even more excitement for saving lives?


    You can't get people excited unless you can help them see and feel the impact. And how you do that – is a complex question.


    Still, I'm optimistic. Yes, inequity has been with us forever, but the new tools we have to cut through complexity have not been with us forever. They are new – they can help us make the most of our caring – and that's why the future can be different from the past.


    The defining and ongoing innovations of this age – biotechnology, the computer, the Internet – give us a chance we've never had before to end extreme poverty and end death from preventable disease.


    Sixty years ago, George Marshall came to this commencement and announced a plan to assist the nations of post-war Europe. He said: "I think one difficulty is that the problem is one of such enormous complexity that the very mass of facts presented to the public by press and radio make it exceedingly difficult for the man in the street to reach a clear appraisement of the situation. It is virtually impossible at this distance

    to grasp at all the real significance of the situation."

    六 十年前,喬治·馬歇爾也是在這個地方的畢業典禮上,宣布了一個計劃,幫助那些歐洲國家的戰后建設。他說:"我認為,困難的一點是這個問題太復雜, 報紙和電臺向公眾源源不斷地提供各種事實,使得大街上的普通人極端難于清晰地判斷形勢。事實上,經過層層傳播,想要真正地把握形勢,是根本不可能的。"

    Thirty years after Marshall made his address, as my class graduated without me, technology was emerging that would make the world smaller, more open, more visible, less distant.


    The emergence of low-cost personal computers gave rise to a powerful network that has transformed opportunities for learning and communicating.


    The magical thing about this network is not just that it collapses distance and makes everyone your neighbor. It also dramatically increases the number of brilliant minds we can have working together on the same problem – and that scales up the rate of innovation to a staggering degree.


    At the same time, for every person in the world who has access to this technology, five people don't. That means many creative minds are left out of this discussion -- smart people with practical intelligence and relevant experience who don't have the technology to hone their talents or contribute their ideas to the world.


    We need as many people as possible to have access to this technology, because these advances are triggering a revolution in what human beings can do for one another. They are making it possible not just for national governments, but for universities, corporations, smaller organizations, and even individuals to see problems, see approaches, and measure the impact of their efforts to address the hunger, poverty, and desperation George Marshall spoke of 60 years ago.

    我們需要盡可能地讓更 多的人有機會使用新技術,因為這些新技術正在引發一場革命,人類將因此可以互相幫助。新技術正在創造一種可能,不僅是政府,還 包括大學、公司、小機構、甚至個人,能夠發現問題所在、能夠找到解決辦法、能夠評估他們努力的效果,去改變那些馬歇爾六十年前就說到過的問題——饑餓、貧 窮和絕望。

    Members of the Harvard Family: Here in the Yard is one of the great collections of intellectual talent in the world.


    What for?


    There is no question that the faculty, the alumni, the students, and the benefactors of Harvard have used their power to improve the lives of people here and around the world. But can we do more? Can Harvard dedicate its intellect to improving the lives of people who will never even hear its name?


    Let me make a request of the deans and the professors – the intellectual leaders here at Harvard: As you hire new faculty, award tenure, review curriculum, and determine degree requirements, please ask yourselves:


    Should our best minds be dedicated to solving our biggest problems?


    Should Harvard encourage its faculty to take on the world's worst inequities? Should Harvard students learn about the depth of global poverty... the prevalence of world hunger … the scarcity of clean water …the girl skept out of school … the children who die from diseases we can cure?


    Should the world's most privileged people learn about the lives of the world's least privileged?


    These are not rhetorical questions – you will answer with your policies.


    My mother, who was filled with pride the day I was admitted here – never stopped pressing me to do more for others. A few days before my wedding, she hosted a bridal event, at which she read aloud a letter about marriage that she had written to Melinda. My mother was very ill with cancer at the time, but she saw one more opportunity to deliver her message, and at the close of the letter she said: "From those to whom much is given, much is expected."

    我的母親在我被哈佛大學錄取的那一天,曾經感到非常驕 傲。她從沒有停止督促我,去為他人做更多的事情。在我結婚的前幾天,她主持了一個新娘進我家的 儀式。在這個儀式上,她高聲朗讀了一封關于婚姻的信,這是她寫給Melinda的。那時,我的母親已經因為癌癥病入膏肓,但是她還是認為這是又一個傳播她 的信念的機會。在那封信的結尾,她寫道:"對于那些接受了許多幫助的人們,他們還在期待更多的幫助。"

    When you consider what those of us here in this Yard have been given – in talent, privilege, and opportunity – there is almost no limit to what theworld has a right to expect from us.


    In line with the promise of this age, I want to exhort each of the graduates here to take on an issue – a complex problem, a deep inequity, and become a specialist on it. If you make it the focus of your career, that would be phenomenal. But you don't have to do that to make an impact. For a few hours every week, you can use the growing power of the Internet to get informed, find others with the same interests, see the barriers, and find ways to cut through them.

    同 這個時代的期望一樣,我也要向今天各位畢業的同學提出一個忠告:你們要選擇一個問題,一個復雜的問題,一個有關于人類深刻的不平等的問題,然后你 們要變成這個問題的專家。如果你們能夠使得這個問題成為你們職業的核心,那么你們就會非常杰出。但是,你們不必一定要去做那些大事。每個星期只用幾個小 時,你就可以通過互聯網得到信息,找到志同道合的朋友,發現困難所在,找到解決它們的途徑。

    Don't let complexity stop you. Be activists. Take on the big inequities. It will be one of the great experiences of your lives.


    You graduates are coming of age in an amazing time. As you leave Harvard, you have technology that members of my class never had. You have awareness of global inequity, which we did not have. And with that awareness, you likely also have an informed conscience that will torment you if you abandon these people whose lives you could change with very little effort. You have more than we had; you must start sooner, and carry on longer.

    在座的各位畢業的同學,你們所處的時代是一個神奇的時代。當你們離開哈佛的時候,你們擁有的技術,是我們那一屆學生所沒有的。你們已經了解到了世界 上的不平等,我們那時還不知道這些。有了這樣的了解之后,要是你再棄那些你可以幫助的人們于不顧,就將受到良心的譴責,只需一點小小的努力,你就可以改變 那些人們的生活。你們比我們擁有更大的能力;你們必須盡早開始,盡可能長時期堅持下去。

    Knowing what you know, how could you not?


    And I hope you will come back here to Harvard 30 years from now and reflect on what you have done with your talent and your energy. I hope you will judge yourselves not on your professional accomplishments alone, but also on how well you have addressed the world's deepest inequities … on how well you treated people a world away who have nothing in common with you but their humanity.

    我希望,30年后你們還會再回到哈佛,想起你們用自己的天賦和能力所做出的一切。我希望,在那個時候,你們用來評價自己的標準,不僅僅是你們的專業 成就,而包括你們為改變這個世界深刻的不平等所做出的努力,以及你們如何善待那些遠隔千山萬水、與你們毫不涉及的人們,你們與他們唯一的共同點就是同為人 類。

    Good luck.


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